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  • HiOA - Housing needs and imbalances in large cities
    Neighbourhoods at risk funded by the Research Council of Norway The database includes demographic geographic and socioeconomic information for all inhabitants living in selected municipalities in the period from 1990 to2011 as well as data from the Norwegian census of housing and people for 2001 and 2011 Magnusson Turner asks what mechanisms drive population growth in the five largest cities in Norway and analyses changes over time in household formation among young adults individuals above sixty years old and individuals with an immigrant background She argues for the importance of focusing on both the number of households the household composition and the household headship rate in analyses of housing needs In addition the heterogeneity that has emerged in Norway s largest cities because of high immigration also has a profound impact on the housing market Even among immigrants who have lived for several years in in Norway and their descendants there is a tendency for traditional household and residential patterns to endure In the Norwegian housing sector this is a novel phenomenon Viggo Nordvik analyses the preferences of the population in the large Norwegian cities for certain residential areas He employs household mobility house prices and rent levels as indicators for assessing a neighbourhood s relative popularity amongst consumers Based on these indicators he concludes that the peripheries play an important role in the division of labour of residential areas some neighbourhoods attract families with children others are popular among couples and singles Most importantly Nordvik argues that there is commercial potential for housing construction in the periphery of the largest Norwegian cities Jardar Sørvoll studies the political debate on housing construction at the national level and in the large cities between 2011 and 2013 He draws on an analytical framework stressing that all relevant political actors accept explicitly or

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Rapporter/2015/Housing-needs-and-imbalances-in-large-cities (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Assessing the reinstatement of elective subjects in lower secondary schools in Norway
    school motivation in the pupils and in themselves The elective subjects are popular mainly because they are practical and because they present a break from ordinary subjects Pupils teachers and leaders alike think the elective subjects enhance school motivation Some pupils who are not theoretically inclined or interested in physical activity may struggle also in the elective subjects Pupils with little school motivation and a low academic level seem to experience less well being in the elective subjects than other pupils The choices of elective subjects There are 14 different elective subjects but most of the pupils attend only three Physical activity and health Production for hall and stage and Design and redesign It is chiefly the teachers interest and qualifications that determine which subjects are offered but school leaders also aim to take pupils choices into account when deciding which subjects to offer Pupils choices are shaped by the school s official information about the subject rumours about teachers and subjects their friends choices and where they are most likely to achieve good grades Boys and girls also choose differently Within the subjects the pupils possibilities for choosing tasks vary Resources In many lower secondary schools the elective subjects have little economic resources and equipment but teachers enthusiasm often play a key role Although lack of finances may be a problem most find that they manage to make the elective subjects varied motivational and practical largely because of the teachers interest creativity and enthusiasm Most teachers think that they have sufficient competencies to teach the elective subjects Subject curriculum The same subject is taught in different ways in different schools It is mostly the teachers who develop the subject curriculum and the shape each elective subject takes in different schools seems to be influenced by the particular teachers interests

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Rapporter/2015/Assessing-the-reinstatement-of-elective-subjects-in-lower-secondary-schools-in-Norway (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Evaluation of the pilot project "Guidance and support to schools struggeling with bullying over a longer period of time"
    aid school officials in creating appropriate systems and routines for bullying prevention and reduction This report investigates how the project has been implemented and experienced and whether it has reached the goals We found that the process of selecting participant schools was unclear and school leaders and school owners municipalities experienced the process as problematic and partly unjust Leading to confusion and resistance to participate this was one of the main hindrances for a more positive outcome of the measure The confusion has in some cases led to considerably more work and to the need for different approaches at different schools The guidance teams consisted of participants with different approaches on the one hand those focusing strictly on bullying and on the other hand participants employing a broader focus on the learning environment The way the measure has been implemented has differed greatly partly due to the guidance teams different approaches and partly because of the participant schools different attitudes and self understanding The measure is regarded differently by people in different roles The school leaders see it as positive but also as a potential threat to the legitimacy of their role as school leaders The teachers find the measure as a whole marginal to their daily tasks the tools useful and the lasting impact on the school small The pupils in general do not know about the measure It is too early to conclude whether the pilot project has reached its goals It is also difficult to separate any effects of this particular measure from other ongoing processes in schools and municipalities The analysis of the Pupil Survey indicates that it is not possible to verify any tendency to reduced bullying in the participant schools Recommendations That the process of selecting schools for participation be reviewed and made more

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Rapporter/2015/Evaluation-of-the-pilot-project-Guidance-and-support-to-schools-struggeling-with-bullying-over-a-longer-period-of-time (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Pre-school teachers
    positive trend An increasingly proportion of newly educated pre school teachers choose to work in a kindergarten and stay in this occupation New register data up to 2012 confirms this positive trend A relatively high proportion of new pre school teachers has chosen to work in a kinder garten and also stayed in their occupation Whereas before 2000 assistants were the most stable work force within the kindergartens employees with education as pre school teachers are currently showing the greatest stability The present report describes these developments Pre school teachers educated today are on average much older when they complete their education compared to those educated earlier for instance before 1980 A major explanation is an increasing share of older assistants who receive a sort of certification as kindergarten teachers through combining work in a kindergarten with education as kindergarten teacher As a measure to produce a stable work force this type of education has been quite successful In 2000 only 44 per cent of those with a pre school teacher education worked in a kindergarten In 2012 this percentage had increased to 54 per cent During this period the number of pre school teachers at kindergartens has increased with more than 13 000 Since earlier pre school teachers only worked at kindergartens for a relatively short period and quit long before they reached retirement age there will not be any major retirement challenges in the next few years The Øie committee from 2012 NOU 2012 1 proposed new norms for the total size of staff and the number of pedagogues The committee calculated that the kindergartens would need 8 000 more pre schools teachers in order to meet their norms for staffing If developments after 2012 are the same as those up to 2012 kindergartens will have 8 000

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Notat/2015/Pre-school-teachers (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Housing needs and imbalances in large cities
    Trondheim Oslo å vokse med nær 20 prosent En stor del av denne befolkningsveksten vil komme blant eldre Om lag 35 prosent av folketallsveksten kommer blant de over 60 år Dette handler først og fremst om store fødselskull på 50 og det tidlige 60 tallet økningen i den forventede levealderen bidrar også til dette Slike endringer skaper utfordringer for planlegging og utbyggingspolitikk Dette notatet drøfter utfordringer i grenselandet mellom politikk

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Notat/2015/Housing-needs-and-imbalances-in-large-cities (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Process evaluation of the Coordination Reform
    coordination of municipal public health work in the period 2013 2015 Our focus is on three topics 1 the municipal planning work 2 organization and use of resources and 3 development of preventive and health promoting measures We ask In what way does the Coordination Reform contribute to a stronger anchoring of public health work in the municipal planning work To what extent and how do municipalities ensure the cross sectorial nature of public health work and their collaboration with external authorities Has the Coordination Reform brought about a change in municipalities use of resources for public health work Can we detect tendencies towards a trend shift in the development of public health measures in municipalities Chapter 2 provides an overview of the data and methods Data are derived from a survey in 76 municipalities 2014 a review of the planning work of 27 municipalities 2014 and a case study including informants from three municipalities 2015 The results in Chapter 3 are based on the review of the planning work in 27 municipalities and the responses from the informants in the three case municipalities In December 2014 the planning work of two thirds of the 27 municipalities provided an overview of their population health by applying the available health profiles However the planning work gave to a limited extent an overview of local factors and environmental developments that can influence population health According to informants from the three case municipalities public health work has become an increasingly prominent priority area in municipal planning work after the launch of the Coordination Reform as it has become a distinct dimension in all political issues that are being processed Chapter 4 describes the extent to which the Coordination Reform has influenced municipalities use of resources and the organization of public health work Approximately three of ten municipal managers indicated an increase in the municipality s use of resources on public health work Also informants from the three case municipalities indicate an increase in the use of resources after the launch of the Coordination Reform However none of the informants report that the resources are spent on new or an increasing number of preventive or health promoting measures The increase in resource use seems to be dedicated to organization and planning work such as creating new positions for public health coordinators producing health charts partici pating in plan forums and or working groups for public health Results from the case study also suggest a strong collaboration between municipalities and county authorities The Coordination Reform seems to have contributed to increased clarity in the roles of the different partners in this collaboration So far the Reform appears to have had little effect on the cross sectorial public health work within the municipalities This is probably because the cross sectorial focus was related to various other conditions and trends that operated prior to and close to the launch of the Coordination Reform such as establishing positions for public health coordinators The results of chapter 5 illustrate

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Rapporter/2015/Process-evaluation-of-the-Coordination-Reform (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Use of social media as a means of contact between children in the care of child welfare services
    their parents via social media have for the children the parents the foster parents caregivers at institutions and the caseworkers in the child services How do children parents foster parents caseworkers and caregivers at institutions relate to the possibilities and challenges that contact via social media gives Three of the main findings Contact between parents and children via social media can be challenging The parents have the opportunity to constantly pressure their children Not all parents are able to see how they burden their children with their own problems and therefore cannot protect their children from getting involved emotionally and specifically Several informants describe how this distresses the children and disturbs their attachment to a new care situation Which in turn influences the child s development and attachment to new caretakers As described the constant negative contact via social media can contribute to the failure of the placement of the child Several mothers convey that they need to learn how to behave online They acknowledge that they write without thinking about that the child will actually read what they write and even less about how the child will react to what they write Contact via social media is also challenging for parents and foster parents On example is that many foster parents want to post pictures of their foster children on the net and that the parents find this offending The second main finding is how contact via social media can make daily life more manageable for the children who live in foster homes or in institutions The extended contact via social media can facilitate the child s adjustment to a new home For instance the possibility for the children to have contact with their parents more frequently than before is mentioned This is a possibility that many children use

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Rapporter/2014/Use-of-social-media-as-a-means-of-contact-between-children-in-the-care-of-child-welfare-services (2015-09-15)
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  • HiOA - Norwegian households’ debt, assets and their use of the credit markets 2012
    loans in 2008 From 2008 to 2012 the percentage with consumer loans decreased to 34 Findings from the previous surveys indicated a formidable growth in the market of consumer credit between 1997 and 2006 However each loan consumer had not borrowed more than before In 2012 the amount of loan per consumer still remained stable For the great majority of costumers this is the market of small loans The bulk of Norwegian s debt is mortgage The increase of household s debt is strongly correlated with the increase of the house prices At the same time this price increase creates a considerable wealth increase among the homeowners and improve the financial solidity among those who have already bought their house The ratio between the household s total debts and the market value of their housing investments has been rather stable during the last 15 years Also for the young homeowners the ratio has not changed for the worse However one in four Norwegians also own holiday homes If we take into account the value of such homes a half of the households with respondent under 63 have a net real capital on 1 200 000 Norwegian kroner One in four has a net real capital on 2 500 000 Norwegian kroner If we also look at financial assets and the value of the households cars almost three out of four households with respondent under 63 have a net wealth of one and a half millions NOK or more One out of four has a net wealth of 3 3 million Norwegian kroner or more Norwegian do not only borrow money to buy a home They also borrow with their home as collateral and there are new and better opportunities to make housing wealth liquid The willingness of the households to

    Original URL path: http://www.hioa.no/eng/About-HiOA/Centre-for-Welfare-and-Labour-Research/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Notat/2014/Norwegian-households-debt-assets-and-their-use-of-the-credit-markets-2012 (2015-09-15)
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