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  • Bedret økonomistyring og økonomisk fremgang - norad.no
    uten noen gang å nå et nivå hvor man kunne forvente omfattende resultater Støtten nådde en topp med ti prosent av statsbudsjettet i 2001 02 men ble kuttet til null året etter for så å øke svakt til fire prosent av budsjettet i 2004 05 I budsjettåret 2008 09 utgjorde budsjettstøtten ni prosent av statsbudsjettet Sammenliknet med andre land fungerte budsjettstøttesamarbeidet i Malawi mindre tilfredsstillende i perioden før 2004 05 Manglende orden i statsfinansene med store underskudd og generelt dårlig økonomistyring var et stort problem i disse årene som delvis kom på toppen av ytre påførte kriser som for eksempel tørke Som respons på svak finansiell styring stoppet giverne budsjettstøtten flere ganger Når dette på kort sikt forsterket problemene illustrerer det dilemmaer ved å stille betingelser i utviklingssamarbeidet En kan også stille spørsmål ved om forutsetningene for å gi budsjettstøtte i tilstrekkelig grad var tilstede da det startet Kapasiteten i Malawis offentlige finansforvaltning var da meget svak likeledes den politiske styringen i et såpass ungt demokrati En evaluering konkluderer med at budsjettstøtten bidro til svært begrensede forbedringer i de første fem årene etter 2000 På områder som politikkutforming tjenestelevering og makroøkonomisk styring ble fremgangen vurdert som nærmest fraværende En viss fremgang skjedde på området offentlig finansforvaltning spesielt lovgrunnlaget og dette la sammen med tilstrekkelig politisk vilje grunnlaget for en markant bedring av den økonomiske styringen etter 2005 Resultater Bedre økonomistyring men svakere måloppnåelse innen området styresett Budsjettstøttesamarbeidet i Malawi er nå basert på en felles avtale mellom giverne og myndighetene Man vurderer effektene av støtten blant annet ved hjelp av en matrise hvor en rekke indikatorer gjennomgås I tabell 3 3 er indikatorene gruppert etter sektorer og andelen oppnådde mål er angitt innen hver sektor for de to årene 2006 2008 Tabellen presenterer et tverrsnitt av utviklingen og kan skjule vesentlige detaljer Kategorien offentlig økonomistyring har hatt relativt høy grad av måloppnåelse Dette reflekterer blant annet at den makroøkonomiske utviklingen har vært gunstig at budsjettet har vært rimelig balansert og fulgt opp med god styring gjennom året og at det har vært fremdrift i reformarbeid Det er også viktige områder hvor utviklingen har vært svak Det har vært store budsjettoverskridelser på enkeltområder fremfor alt i et stort subsidie program for kunstgjødsel I budsjettstøttesamarbeidet er det lagt vekt på å gjøre noe med de store etterslepene i revisjon av statsregnskapene og å følge opp revisjonsrapporter Norge bidrar i tillegg til generell budsjettstøtte med støtte til institusjonssamarbeid mellom den norske og Malawiske riksrevisjonen statistikkbyrået samt med støtte til parlamentet Måloppnåelsen under kategorien økonomisk vekst har vært lav Den inneholder noen få mål på viktige men avgrensede områder som påvirker økonomiens virkemåte En måler blant annet trekk ved det som kalles forretningsklima spesielt hvor lett det er å starte og nedlegge bedrifter samt gjennomføring av reformer som skal gjøre landbruksmarkedene mer effektive Under sosiale sektorer har måloppnåelsen vært relativt høy Her måles fremdriften på utdanningsområdet og innen helse Resultatene omfatter bedret gjennomføringsprosent i grunnskolen flere fødsler med helsepersonell til stede og fremskritt i

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/no/resultater/bedret-%C3%B8konomistyring-og-%C3%B8konomisk-fremgang (2014-09-27)
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  • Investeringer som har gitt økt sysselse... - norad.no
    kroner Norfund har blitt mindre hardt rammet av finanskrisen enn mange andre investeringsfond En av forklaringene er at finanskrisen ennå ikke hadde slått inn i mange utviklingsland fordi landene ikke er knyttet opp i internasjonale finansmarkeder i samme grad som industrilandene Likevel indikerer det at investeringer i utviklingsland kan gi god avkastning Resultater Overskudd i bedrifter som Norfund har investert i gir signal til andre bedrifter om at investeringer i utviklingsland kan være lønnsomme Resultatene av Norfunds virksomhet kan måles på tre nivåer Det første nivået er Norfunds eget resultat som gir en indikasjon på hvorvidt norsk kapitalformidling i utviklingsland er lønnsomt Det gir et signal om overskudd i de bedrifter og virksomheter Norfund har investert i Et slikt overskudd viser andre kapitaleiere at investeringer i utviklingsland kan være lønnsomme Det andre nivået er utviklingseffekter skapt av de bedriftene Norfund investerer i På slutten av 2008 jobbet det nesten 250 000 mennesker i disse bedriftene Omtrent 100 000 av disse jobbet i ca 200 selskaper der Norfund hadde investert gjennom andre fond Kvinneandelen utgjorde 49 prosent Denne høye andelen skyldes investeringer i mikrokredittselskaper som retter seg mot kvinner Kvinneandelen i bedrifter der Norfund har investert direkte er betydelig lavere 18 prosent i 2008 Norfund oppgir at bedriftene til sammen betalte 3 2 milliarder kroner i skatt i 2008 Grameen Phone i Bangladesh betalte alene over 2 2 milliarder norske kroner i selskapsskatt lisenser og avgifter Av Norfunds samlede fondsinvesteringer er 52 prosent i Afrika sør for Sahara I 2008 var 93 prosent av de nye fondsinvesteringene i Afrika Norfund vekter ikke størrelsen på Norfunds investering i det enkelte foretaket og resultattallene inkluderer totale tall fra hele virksomheten Resultatene kan derfor ikke i sin helhet tillegges til Norfunds engasjement Bedrifter tjener og taper penger og kapitalbasen endres fra år til år

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/no/resultater/investeringer-som-har-gitt-%C3%B8kt-sysselsetting-og-skatteinntekter (2014-09-27)
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  • Climate in Norwegian development policy - norad.no
    10 2011 Updated 30 10 2011 Print Tweet Climate change like the melting of snow and ice in the Himalayas is a threat to the livelihood of millions of people Photo Bjørnulf Remme Norad Photo Bjørnulf Remme This is why climate change and the environment are the main focus areas of Norwegian development policy This is clearly stated in the Government s White Paper on Norwegian development policy Climate Conflict and Capital and evidenced by the discussions of the White Paper in the parliament Stortinget The framework for Norwegian environmental cooperation is outlined in the Norwegian Government s Action Plan for Environment in Development Cooperation 2006 Norway is focusing its cooperation on four areas Sustainable management of biological diversity and natural resources Climate change and access to clean energy Management of water resources water and sanitation Hazardous substances Tweet Norad Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation 2011 Location Ruseløkkveien 26 0251 Oslo Norway Postadresse Pb 8034 Dep 0030 Oslo Norway Telephone 47 23 98 00 00 E mail postmottak norad no Contact us Thematic areas Climate Change and the Environment Energy Macroeconomics and public administration Global health Education and research Democracy and Good Governance Countries Africa Asia and Oceania Latin America

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/climate-change-and-the-environment/climate-in-norwegian-development-policy (2014-09-27)
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  • Climate proofing - norad.no
    which they will function The conventional way is to assume that the climate of the past is a reliable guide to the future This is no longer a sufficient assumption To address climate change the design criteria must be based on probable future climate scenarios and expected impacts In order to take climate change into consideration the risk assessment of development programmes will have to address not only the effects of development cooperation on the environment but also the impacts that imminent climate related changes have on development cooperation including indirect socio economic impacts Climate change will affect all aspects of development cooperation It may increase the risk of failure as well as affect the vulnerability of development aid recipients Development cooperation must be climate proof i e must be protected from negative impacts of climate change climate variability and extreme weather events In response to this Norad has developed a practical guide on how climate issues can be considered in the project cycle Embassies and other interested parties are encouraged to use the practical guide Experiences with using the practical guide and suggestions for improving the guide are welcome The practical guide will be revised OECD DAC policy guidance OECD DAC has also prepared Policy Guidance on Integrating Adaptation to Climate Change into Development Co operation This Policy Guidance is intended to provide information and advice on how to mainstream climate change into development The objectives are to Promote understanding of the implications of climate change on development practice and the need to mainstream adaptation in development co operation Identify appropriate approaches for integrating adaptation into development policies at national sectoral project levels and at local contexts Identify practical ways for donors to support developing country partners in their efforts to reduce their vulnerability to climate change Tweet Preliminary

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/climate-change-and-the-environment/climate-proofing (2014-09-27)
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  • Adaptation to climate change - norad.no
    there is a need for increased focus on and attention to adaptation to future impacts of climate change Published 26 10 2011 Updated 28 10 2011 Print Tweet Adaptation consists of deliberate actions undertaken to reduce the adverse consequences as well as to harness any beneficial opportunities Adaptation is defined as adjustments in human and natural systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their effects that moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities In principle a range of development activities could help reduce vulnerability to many climate change impacts In some cases however development as usual may inadvertently increase vulnerability Yet many development policies plans and projects currently fail to take into account climate variability let alone climate change Tweet Norad Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation 2011 Location Ruseløkkveien 26 0251 Oslo Norway Postadresse Pb 8034 Dep 0030 Oslo Norway Telephone 47 23 98 00 00 E mail postmottak norad no Contact us Thematic areas Climate Change and the Environment Energy Macroeconomics and public administration Global health Education and research Democracy and Good Governance Countries Africa Asia and Oceania Latin America Middle East Tools publications Publications Guidelines for quality assurance Norwegian Aid Statistics Aid transparency Evaluation What is

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/climate-change-and-the-environment/adaptation-to-climate-change (2014-09-27)
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  • Mitigation - norad.no
    applies to all types of tropical forests The Secretariat for the initiative is based in the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment Norad is actively supporting the initiative by providing technical assistance to the secretariat reviewing specific programme activities and funding schemes and participating in joint missions Norad is managing a support scheme for support to civil society organizations under the Climate and Forest Initiative Clean Energy Initiative More than 80 per cent of the world s energy use today is based on fossil fuels which leads to large climate gas emissions Poor people are the most vulnerable to climate change because they lack the necessary resources to adapt to climate change and because their value creation is largely based on natural resources Increased investment in low carbon technology improved energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy at prices that are affordable to poor people is crucial in achieving the MDGs Clean Development Mechanism CDM The Clean Development Mechanism CDM allows public or private entities to invest in greenhouse gas GHG mitigating project activities in developing countries and earn abatement credits which can then be applied against their own GHG emissions or sold on the open market The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation Norad established a support mechanism to enable eligible entities Project Developers to prepare the necessary documentation for submission of CDM projects to the Designated National Authority DNA and the United Nations CDM Executive Board Developing new CDM methodologies or adapting existing methodologies can also be supported Project Developers from Norway and Least Developed Countries LDCs may submit CDM project proposals Tweet Related links The Government of Norway s International Climate and Forest Initiative Related files CDM Guidelines for support final doc Norad Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation 2011 Location

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/climate-change-and-the-environment/mitigation (2014-09-27)
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  • Norway’s International Climate and Fore... - norad.no
    and welfare Still deforestation continues Watch video Norway s International Climate and Forest Intiative Since its inception in April 2008 the Climate and Forest Initiative has established a series of partnerships with key forest countries and contributed to significant advances in the development of a REDD mechanism under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC A REDD mechanism under the UNFCCC could change the economic logic in favor of the global climate and forests Such a regime must provide results based predictable and adequate funding streams for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation The Norwegian Climate and Forest Initiative has the following key objectives To contribute to the inclusion of REDD reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from forests in developing countries To contribute to early actions for measurable emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation To promote the conservation of primary forests due to their particular importance as carbon stores and for their biological diversity As an overarching goal all these efforts should promote sustainable development and the reduction of poverty REDD is not simply an issue of improved forest management it is a fundamental development choice The climate change mitigation potential of REDD will never be realized unless it offers a more attractive and viable development option than the destructive uses of the forests Watch video Main tracks To achieve its objectives Norway is pursuing four main tracks Playing an active role in the international negotiations under the UNFCCC seeking both to identify innovative solutions and to help create consensus around those solutions Entering into large scale partnerships with key forest countries to demonstrate that real action on a national level is possible and to encourage large scale emission reductions even before a REDD mechanism is agreed upon under the UNFCCC Contributing to the design and establishment

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/climate-change-and-the-environment/norways-international-climate-and-forest-initiative (2014-09-27)
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  • Oil for Development - norad.no
    manage The term resource curse refers to the body of literature suggesting counter intuitively that natural resources particularly minerals and fossil fuels can have a negative impact on a country s economic development governance and the environment To the benefit of the people Norway is generally considered to be a country that has managed to harness the petroleum resources for the benefit of its people Norwegian petroleum management has been characterized by strategic state ownership strong and competent institutions a continual build up of technical knowledge an advanced regulatory system with high respect for the environment and HSE Health Safety and Environment and perhaps above all society s determination to secure control over the petroleum resources The purpose of the OfD programme is to share Norwegian petroleum experience and support initiatives where there is ownership and demand in the partner country Developing capacity through institutional collaboration The main approach in the OfD programme is capacity development through institutional collaboration Norwegian public institutions enter into long term agreements with public institutions in a partner country The key implementing parties are the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate Norwegian Environment Agency Petroleum Safety Authority Norway the Norwegian Oil Taxation Office and the Norwegian Coastal Administration Their assistance is overseen by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy the Ministry of Climate and Environment and the Ministry of Finance The Programme also coordinates activities with Statistics Norway and the Office of the Auditor General of Norway Other actors involved are consultancies and research institutions the foundation Petrad multilateral actors such as the IMF and the World Bank as well as actors in civil society media and academia Tweet Related publications Oil for development Annual Report 2013 Oil for Development Annual report 2012 Oil for Development Annual Report 2011 Oil for Development initiative Annual report 2010 Oil for

    Original URL path: http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/energy/oil-for-development (2014-09-27)
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