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  • Did you know that Norway’s first oil boom was in Antarctica? | South Pole 1911-2011
    from the north he established the whaling station Grytviken on South Georgia in 1904 with good financial support from Argentina This marked the dawn of modern whaling in Antarctica Initially land stations were established on South Georgia and Deception Island When whales started to disappear from nearby waters floating refineries were built ships that lay in calm waters where whale oil could be rendered from the blubber Only the oil and the baleen were used Whale oil was in great demand to make soap and margarine and baleen was used in corsets Small whale chasing boats were deployed from the refinery to capture the whales When a whale had been harpooned the carcass was filled with air to keep it afloat and marked with shipping company s flag Later the carcasses were collected and towed to the refinery ship where they were flensed alongside the ship and the blubber was hauled aboard to be rendered Eventually whaling became an entirely off shore activity centred on factory ships with a wide range of action These ships could spend an entire season whaling on the open seas independently of land bases which meant that the shipping companies did not have to pay fees to stations with licenses At the stern of these factory ships was a slipway up which the whale carcass could be hauled Anders Jahre commissioned construction of the first custom built factory ship Kosmos I on which five whales could be flensed simultaneously the oil rendered and with enough space left over on deck for a seaplane The ship was costly to build but it was paid for in two years As many as 10 000 Norwegians were involved when the industry was at its peak They worked for the shipping companied in Vestfold but also for foreign shippers

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-11-04-norways-first-oil-boom-was-in-antarctica.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that there are Norwegian artworks in Antarctica? | South Pole 1911-2011
    something for the overwintering team to rest their eyes on during their long winter months of isolation In cooperation with KORO acronym for Art in Public Spaces the Norwegian Polar Institute arranged an art project which resulted in the creation of the specially designed artworks that now grace the station s walls The artists Arvid Sveen Jenny Rydhagen and Jenny Marie Johnsen were commissioned to decorate the station and all three let their works be inspired by research related material and historic artifacts such as photographs documents and letters Arvid Sveen s work Open Water Tracks and signs consists of four photographs showing four different horizons Into each photograph he has copied fragments of handwritten notes from various Norwegian expeditions in Antarctica Jenny Ryghagen s work Whiteout is composed of six photographs that illustrate the fascination most people feel for the Antarctic landscape hidden away on a relatively new found continent inaccessible by virtue of its harsh climate and desolate location The artworks combine quotes from Antarctic explorers and images of artifacts photographed through a macro lens triggering associations with snow ice and seas Jenny Marie Johnsen s work ARCTIC ANTARCTIC Columnar Granular consists of five photographs that originate from

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-11-03-there-are-norwegian-artworks-in-antarctica.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that the first woman in Antarctica was Norwegian? | South Pole 1911-2011
    oil tanker M S Thorshavn to Antarctica in 1935 The ship s captain was Klarius Mikkelsen Caroline s husband On 20 February seven crew members plus Caroline and her husband set off towards land in a lifeboat They found a narrow inlet where it was possible to go ashore near a mountain chain they named Vestfoldfjellene The mountains were named after the part of Norway where Lars Christensen s whaling company had its headquarters The crew and Caroline raised the Norwegian flag and built a cairn at the site which was located at 68 23 S and 79 36 E The place was inhabited by several colonies of penguins and the penguin chicks were in the middle their moulting period when the Norwegian visitors arrived The entire area was covered in several feet of guano bird droppings The party found time enough to celebrate with coffee and sandwiches before they returned to Thorshavn and continued their journey along the uncharted coast and the ice barrier The area was named Ingrid Christensen Land in honor of the wife of the whaling company s owner Lars Christensen Ingrid Christensen went to Antarctica two years later Caroline Mikkelsen had a mountain named after

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-11-02-the-first-woman-in-antarctica-was-norwegian.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that the sea level would rise 60 meters if all the ice in Antarctica were to melt? | South Pole 1911-2011
    how much less is a difficult task that the world s scientists are currently striving to accomplish The Antarctic continent is vast and holds an incredible amount of water in the form of ice Illustration Norwegian Polar Institute Ten years ago the general opinion among scientists was that the Antarctic Ice Cap would increase in mass if global temperatures rose This is because higher air temperatures would lead to more precipitation and in frigid Antarctica that means more snow As a result the ice cap would grow thicker The snow that falls over Antarctica binds water that would otherwise be in the oceans Thus the conjecture was that during global warming Antarctica would contribute towards a decrease in sea level More recent measurements taken from satellites and on the ground have prompted reconsideration of this conclusion Antarctica is a continent covered with ice and most of that ice is high above sea level Where the ice cap meets the sea however vast floating ice shelves form these shelves contain about 10 of the ice in Antarctica The ice shelves are in contact with the ocean which can weaken and melt them Along the Antarctic Peninsula in particular several ice shelves

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-11-01-the-sea-level-would-rise-60-meters-if-the-antarctic-ice-melted.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that Norway has a long history of Antarctic research? | South Pole 1911-2011
    received its financing from England John Snuggerud setting up a camera to study the southern lights aurora australis during the Norwegian Antarctic expedition 1956 1960 Photo Norwegian Polar Institute As early as in the 1920s and 1930s Norwegians were pursuing extensive research in Antarctica mostly during expeditions that combined whale hunting and science After World War II there was greater emphasis on scientific activity and two milestones of Norwegian Antarctic research were attained the joint Norwegian British Swedish Maudheim expedition of 1949 1952 and the founding of Norway Station in Dronning Maud Land 1956 1960 in conjunction with the International Geophysical Year 1957 1958 Norway was also involved in establishing an international body the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research SCAR and was quick to ratify the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 The Norwegian Polar Institute has mounted expeditions to Antarctica regularly since 1976 NARE Norwegian Arctic Research Expeditions is an expedition support framework that facilitates effectuation of all Antarctic research funded by the Norwegian government The chief aim of NARE is to gather information that will improve our understanding of natural and human induced climate change The research projects focus on biology glaciology palaeoclimatology climate history physical oceanography and environmental monitoring

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-31-norway-has-a-long-history-of-antarctic-research.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that written Norwegian has two different words for the South Pole? | South Pole 1911-2011
    of Danish origin have fallen out of use in favor of more Norwegian sounding forms Syd is now perceived as being more old fashioned than sør Likewise the old Nynorsk form sud is no longer viable According to current Norwegian spelling conventions the pole is called Sørpolen in Nynorsk while both Sørpolen and Sydpolen are acceptable in Bokmål In the public sector it is practical to use Sørpolen since this spelling is correct in both written forms of the language Spoken language varies considerably throughout Norway a country rich in dialects and people can decide for themselves which word they want to use to describe the South Pole There is great interest in polar history in Norway and many still prefer to use the old version Sydpolen with its stronger connotations of historic heroism And in Bokmål that is just fine Other European languages call the pole south sud süd syd sør sör söder sur zuid In Old Norse the word was suðr evidence as good as any that words migrate and transmute between languages In Davvisámegiella the Northern Sami Language the South Pole is called Lullipola The choice between syd and sør is determined by the choice of language

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-30-written-norwegian-has-two-different-words-for-the-south-pole.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that Antarctica is the driest continent on Earth? | South Pole 1911-2011
    driest coldest most sparsely inhabited continent on our planet has plenty of water but it s all frozen Ice milled from nearby ice fields is shoveled into the freshwater melting pot Photo Norwegian Polar Institute Strange as it may sound on the icy continent of Antarctica water is hard to come by All water supplies come from melting of ice At the Norwegian research station Troll in Dronning Maud Land water is strip mined from nearby ice fields and transported back to the station where it is then melted with excess heat from the station s generators In the course of a year the people at the station use a lot of water for cooking and drinking but also to wash laundry and dishes shower flush the toilet and to fill the hot tub whenever it is in use The average water consumption is about 100 liters per person per day In Antarctica emissions and waste management are governed by the strict regulations set forth in the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 1995 The goal is to keep the continent as clean as possible and see to it that all waste is sorted and shipped out of

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-29-antarctica-is-the-driest-continent-on-earth.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know there were Norwegians living in Antarctica? | South Pole 1911-2011
    up to the day when the last flight leaves Troll at the end of February In the summer the work involves keeping the station s infrastructure running other types of work that need doing at the station and the all important transportation tasks In the winter the team members are each in charge of their own specialties there is a mechanic a doctor an electrician a cook maintenance technicians and research technicians A station leader is chosen from among them Women have been on the overwintering team several times but most of the crew are men In the winter Troll is physically cut off from the rest of the world but there is a satellite link up The overwintering team can make phone calls and send e mails surf the internet and watch television The station has many video games and a library Both the gym and the distinctive surroundings outside the station attract many visits If there is enough snow and not too much wind chill ski trails are prepared and right beside the station there is a hill that offers superb opportunities for telemark skiing Troll has its own 10 peak challenge in which participants climb ten different peaks in the vicinity of the station The food at Troll is as similar as possible to ordinary Norwegian fare Provisions are bought for the station once a year and three huge containers are stuffed with food enough to last an entire year These containers are then shipped by boat to the ice edge and transported with convoys of tracked vehicles the last 300 kilometers up to the station The fresh fruits and vegetables are gone early in the winter and everyone must do without them until spring when the first plane comes in November Troll Station s closest neighbor

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-28-there-were-norwegians-living-in-antarctica.html (2014-09-28)
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