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  • Did you know that two Sami men participated in the first overwintering on the Antarctic continent? | South Pole 1911-2011
    was Antarctica The ship carried a Norwegian expedition team led by Carsten Borchgrevink from Kristiania Two Sami men Per Savio and Ole Must from Sør Varanger were also on the team They had been hired to tend the dogs The expedition s objective was to find the magnetic south pole and if possible make an attempt on the geographical pole as well The expedition was funded privately by the British newspaper magnate George Newnes The crossing to Antarctica went smoothly The Southern Cross anchored in the Bay of Whales in the inner part of the Ross Sea and Borchgrevink s expedition team spent the winter at Cape Adare in two prefabricated houses they had taken along This was the first expedition to overwinter on the Antarctic continent Due to a mishap the two Sami were the first people to spend an entire night on Antarctica This happened before the team had found a suitable spot to spend the winter One day when Per Savio and Ole Must were out with the dogs the wind picked up and the ship was forced out to open sea to ride out the storm Savio and Must were left behind on shore with the

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-27-two-sami-men-participated-in-the-first-overwintering-in-antarctica.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that there are lakes under the ice in Antarctica? | South Pole 1911-2011
    Expeditions Ice Divide of East Antarctica TASTE IDEA 2007 2008 Photo Stein Tronstad Norwegian Polar Institute The radar measurements were done during the Norwegian American research traverse TASTE IDEA organized during the International Polar Year 2007 2008 when tracked vehicles traveled from the Norwegian research station Troll in Dronning Maud Land to the South Pole Glacial radar data from the traverse showed that the water level in at least two of the lakes has previously been much higher which indicates that there has been outflow of water at some time The data also indicated that the ice cap over much of this region rests upon soft wet sediments rather than lakes A few other lakes were discovered nearby in which the water level had decreased quite recently These research findings reveal that there is a dynamic system of water rivers seepage and wet sediment under the ice We know from earlier research that water and soft sediments under a glacier influence how quickly the ice moves towards the coast which in turn has impact on how quickly sea level can rise It turns out that the Recovery area has precisely the characteristics that must be in place to facilitate rapid

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-26-there-are-lakes-under-the-ice-in-antarctica.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that the term Antarctic actually comes from “anti-Arctic”? | South Pole 1911-2011
    coast of the continent had been explored and Norwegians were among the first to lay eyes on Antarctic shorelines The oldest Norwegian place names in Antarctica designate places along the Antarctic Peninsula the whaler Jason and her crew passed through these waters in 1893 and left behind the names Foyn Coast and Mount Jason Many Norwegian place names can also be found in areas visited by Roald Amundsen and his companions in 1911 on their way from Framheim to the South Pole Everyone who sailed with Fram had one of the nearby mountaintops named after him Amundsen also honoured several other people by naming geographical features after them An example is Mount Betty which Amundsen named after the beloved nanny who had cared for him in his childhood In the 1920s and 1930s several Norwegian research expeditions were sent to Antarctica with funding from the whaling industry and both boats and aircraft were used to explore and chart the continent s coastlines Several of the place names along the coast of the area we now call Dronning Maud Land were established during these expeditions Many of these places bear names inspired by the royal family of that time Farther east in what is now the Australian sector is the Lars Christensen Coast This area is named after the shipping magnate who financed the Norwegian mapping expeditions Norway annexed Dronning Maud Land in January 1939 After the Second World War a mountain range some distance inland was named Heimefrontfjella the Home Front Mountains in honour of the Norwegian resistance movement Many features in the terrain of this area were named after partisan groups and heroes from the resistance during the war Today the responsibility for Norwegian place names in Norwegian territories in Antarctica rests with the naming committee of the Norwegian

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-25-antarctic-anti-arctic.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know about the troll in Antarctica? | South Pole 1911-2011
    bare ground in an area called Jutulsessen surrounded by mighty peaks and nunataks Most of the other research stations in Antarctica rest on snow or ice All Troll s research equipment fuel and other supplies must be transported a full 275 km from the coast This arduous time consuming journey over the ice is undertaken by convoys of tracked vehicles In the summer however it is fairly easy to reach the station by air Troll Airfield with its 3000 meter long runway is located on a patch of rock hard blue ice just a couple of kilometers from the research station Troll was first set up by the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition of 1989 1990 and was originally meant for summer use only The station is owned and run by the Norwegian Polar Institute and was substantially upgraded in 2005 when it first opened as a year round station H R H Queen Sonja inaugurated the new station The station can accommodate eight people in the winter and many more in the summer It serves as a meteorological station a radiation observatory for measurement of radiation including UV wavelengths and a field station for glaciological biological and geophysical field research programs

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-24-troll-in-antarctica.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that Dronning Maud Land was completely unexplored until just 80 years ago? | South Pole 1911-2011
    centred around whaling activities This later led to Norwegian mapping efforts and ultimately annexation Map Norwegian Polar Institute Fabian von Bellingshausen is usually credited with the discovery of Antarctica but over a hundred years went by between von Bellingshausen s visit and the exploration of Dronning Maud Land When von Bellingshausen logged the position of his sailing vessel Vostok in January of 1820 he was 30 km off the coast of Dronning Maud Land The expedition was financed by the Russian czar Alexander I in hope of finding thesouthern continent that everyone assumed must exist In 1819 two ships set sail from St Petersburg the corvette Vostok and a support vessel with a total crew of nearly two hundred men We do not know for certain whether von Bellingshausen saw the coast of Dronning Maud Land or only the ice in the adjacent seas The weather was poor and the ships were forced to retreat out of the ice It was Norwegian whaling activity in the region that prompted Norwegian interest in charting and later claiming the area In 1989 when Norway claimed the sector between 20 W and 45 E Stortinget did not delimit the northern and southern extent of the claim The phrase used was with the land lying inland of this shore and the seas lying there within be laid under Norwegian sovereignty Dronning Maud Land borders on the British sector to the west and the Australian sector to the east The seaward side of Dronning Maud Land contains ice shelves that float on the sea surface In most cases the ice edge towers to a height of 20 30 metres Between one and two hundred km from the coast the ice is nearly 2000 metres thick A mountain chain sticks up out of this ice jagged

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-23-dronning-maud-land-unexplored-until-recently.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that Antarctica has more freshwater than any other place on Earth? | South Pole 1911-2011
    the ice in the world and about 86 of all freshwater that occurs in the form of ice But despite all this freshwater Antarctica is considered one of the most arid places on Earth Overview map of the Antarctic Map Norwegian Polar Institute Antarctica is the highest coldest driest and windiest of the world s continents It is also tallest in terms of average height above sea level Nearly 99 of this land mass is covered with an ice cap with an average altitude of around 2 200 metres above sea level The area of this vast continent some 14 million square kilometres doubles in the winter when sea ice can stretch as much as 1000 km outwards from the coastline Most of the continent of Antarctica lies south of 70 S although the Antarctic Peninsula stretches northward as far as 60 S The continent is surrounded by the Southern Ocean a circumpolar sea that isolates Antarctica from the other continents Most of Antarctica is covered with ice but in many places mountain peaks nunataks stick up out of the ice The Vinson Massif in West Antarctica with an elevation of 5 140 m is the highest peak in Antarctica

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-22-antarctic-has-more-freshwater-than-any-other-place-on-earth.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that Antarctica is reserved for peace and research? | South Pole 1911-2011
    traverse during IPY had participants from Norway USA Japan and Germany Photo Jan Gunnar Winther Norwegian Polar Institute Research in Antarctica in the years following the International Geophysical Year IGY in 1957 1958 was dominated by national programs and national priorities often in the immediate vicinity of the national stations But this state of affairs changed over time culminating with the massive international research efforts carried out during the International Polar Year IPY in 2007 2008 During IPY many nations joined forces to organize expeditions that no nation could have accomplished on its own These international research collaborations are now bearing fruit as new knowledge comes to light How the ecosystems of the Southern Polar Ocean react to climate change is one of many important research questions examined during IPY Understanding the ecosystems is important if we are to ensure that living marine resources are managed sustainably krill harvesting is a particularly pertinent example in this regard Another issue is what role Antarctica s vast stores of ice wil play in determining future sea levels The logistical challenges of doing research in Antarctica were another factor that motivated international cooperation around air and sea transport and operation of research stations

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-21-antarctica-is-reserved-for-peace-and-research.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Did you know that Amundsen was actually supposed to go to the North Pole? | South Pole 1911-2011
    explore the Arctic Ocean and hopefully also reach the North Pole Nansen made him wait quite a while before answering Nansen had not yet completely given up his own dream to use Fram to reach the North Pole Eventually Amundsen was allowed to borrow the vessel to accomplish what Nansen had set out to do in the Fram expedition of 1893 96 Amundsen was better prepared he would take along newly constructed scientific instruments and would hopefully return home with knowledge that could give scientists new and better understanding of the central regions of the Arctic Many hoped he would also plant the Norwegian flag on the North Pole In 1909 the news came that Frederick Cook had been at the North Pole just after Robert Peary claimed to have been there Secretly Amundsen changed his plans In Madeira he called his men up on deck and spread out a large map of Antarctica They were going to take a detour to the South Pole he informed them before they began their real mission which was the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole Great heavens above wrote Hjalmar Johansen at the end of his letter home Such a surprise And in just a quarter of an hour We are not going to the North Pole we are going to the South Pole Amundsen s change of course was a gamble of such dimensions it is almost impossible to comprehend He had hoodwinked everyone The Norwegian Parliament Sponsors who had poured liberal amounts of money into the project Numerous scientists who had invested their time and reputation into his planned exploration of the Arctic Ocean And he had deceived Nansen who had given him use of Fram Amundsen had no option but to succeed in Antarctica The circumstances required him to

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-20-amundsen-was-meant-to-go-to-the-north-pole.html (2014-09-28)
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