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  • Did you know that Amundsen had the date wrong when he reached the South Pole? | South Pole 1911-2011
    down the Atlantic Ocean across the Indian Ocean and into the Pacific and Southern Oceans towards Hvalbukta the Bay of Whales What they did not consider were the implications of crossing the 180 degree meridian on their way into the Ross Sea This is where east meets west exactly opposite to the Greenwich meridian 0 which is the Prime Meridian of the global system of time zones If travelling east from Greenwich we have to add one hour to the clock for every 15 degrees of longitude i e every time zone Over a full circle around the globe this adds up to 24 hours and thus the traveller would lose a day just like Phileas Fogg in Jules Verne s novel Around the World in Eighty Days To avoid this the 180 degree meridian with some adjustments has been designated as the international date line Going eastwards across this line we must not only adjust the clock but also go back a day on the calendar This is why you can fly from New Zealand on a Friday evening and arrive in Hawaii on Friday morning For the crew on Fram it meant that they arrived in the Bay of Whales on January 13 1911 not on the 14th as Amundsen noted in his diary The error was not corrected until the journey s end On the South Pole the situation becomes even more interesting The pole is where all longitudes and hence all time zones meet If you like you can clasp your hand around the pole marking the Pole and claim to be spanning 24 hours with your own body by literally being at all longitudes at the same time The real life consequence is that the sun circles the horizon at the exact same elevation throughout

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/did-you-know/2011-10-19-amundsen-had-the-date-wrong.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Roald Amundsen's original South Pole Expedition diary | South Pole 1911-2011
    Pole Expedition diary Roald Amundsen s diary written during his expedition to the South Pole in 1911 The diary is kept at the National Library in Oslo but we have permission to show it here To see this page you must install a Flash plugin The original is kept at the National Library in Oslo Ms 8 1249 Roald Amundsen Slædedagbok for turen til Sydpolen 1 notisbok skinnb Trykt pag

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/original.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Amundsen's diary: Sunday, 11 December 2011 | South Pole 1911-2011
    the hypsometer we are descending although quite gently Possibly it is only the weather conditions that explain this The meridian altitude which was shot under the most favourable conditions calm clear sharply defined sun and horizon likewise gave 89 6 That is to say dead reckoning was once more in agreement We have done our usual 17 nautical miles and are now lying at 89 15 3 day s march

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/1911-12-11.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Amundsen's diary: Saturday, 10 December 2011 | South Pole 1911-2011
    big ring round the sun A meridian altitude gave 1 minute less than dead reckoning Made up for it by doing 17 instead of 16 nautical miles Now lying at 88 56 S lat Terrain and going the same We notice alright that it is hard to work up here on the heights We ll get our breath back if only we win Oh well we ll manage Looking forward

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/1911-12-10.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Amundsen's diary: Friday, 09 December 2011 | South Pole 1911-2011
    before us Sledges and ski glide easily and pleasantly But the dogs are tired and they do not run fast but they run evenly and we have covered the stipulated 16 nautical miles Another 5 days and it is our intention to arrive The Vidda does not give the impression of being enriched by strong winds The snow covering is quite loose Difficult enough to find a decent camp site

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/1911-12-09.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Amundsen's diary: Thursday, 08 December 2011 | South Pole 1911-2011
    Presumably he had gone away to die Each of these two sledges has been lightened by ca 50 kg Bj has got rid of 42 5 kg dog and human pemmican W has unloaded his case of biscuits containing 2 200 together with 11 5 kg pemmican In addition a tin of alcohol57 and a ball of string have been left in this depot This depot is marked transversely E W 60 planks from packing cases have been laid out on each side 100 paces from each other Every other plank carries a black pennant Those planks to the E all have a notch under the pennant to indicate the direction they lie in relation to the depot The weather has been really good today On several occasions the sun has been absolutely clear 24 this evening Light SE ly breeze We leave here well supplied to get back here ca 30 days for humans ca 20 days for dogs Three of us HH W and I look quite awe inspiring since our faces were frostbitten in the SE storm a few days ago Bj Hass who went last got off Scot free The dogs have begun to be quite

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/1911-12-08.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Amundsen's diary: Wednesday, 07 December 2011 | South Pole 1911-2011
    prepared to reveal herself But eventually she appeared not in all her glory but modest and pretty excellent for a good view We shot her we made no mistake and the result Well it was almost exactly 88 16 A brilliant victory after 1 march in thick fog and snow drift In other words observation and dead reckoning agreed to a minute Later in the afternoon we took two separate observations for compass variation at very different times 5 o clock and 8 o clock with the same result So we are ready to take the Pole in any kind of weather on offer It was only 7 nautical miles from our observation site to the Englishmen s Sh s world record 88 23 I had given HH our Pole flag which he would hoist on his sledge the leading sledge as soon as that latitude had been crossed I was myself the forerunner at that time The weather had improved more and more and the sun was in the process of breaking through in dead earnest My snow goggles bothered me from time to time Light airs from the S made them cloud over making it difficult to see Then suddenly I heard a stout hearty cheer behind me I turned round In the light breeze from the S the brave well known colours were flying from the first sledge we have passed and put behind us the Englishmen s record It was a splendid sight The sun had just burst through in all its glory and illuminated in a lovely manner the beautiful little flag a present from Helland Hansen and Nordahl Olsen My goggles clouded over again but this time it was not the south wind s fault We halted at 88 23 2 and congratulated each

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/1911-12-07.html (2014-09-28)
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  • Amundsen's diary: Tuesday, 06 December 2011 | South Pole 1911-2011
    dead reckoning Tomorrow we will do another 20 mile march and then exceed Sh s record Then we will stop for a day and recuperate Of that we are sorely in need both men and animals The terrain has much improved today Completely flat and fine everywhere No sastrugi but much loose snow And this evening the hypsometer shows that we have not climbed at all Are we now on

    Original URL path: http://sorpolen2011.npolar.no/en/diary-amundsen/1911-12-06.html (2014-09-28)
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